Built on a conical hill rising 1,000 feet above the surrounding valley, Pergamum (also spelled Pergamon, from the Greek for “citadel”) was an important capital city in ancient times. Its modern successor is the Turkish city of Bergama. A lack of modern accommodations means that Bergama is often a very quick stop, if visitors bother to come at all. But it is worth a long stop, for Bergama is home to two of the country’s most celebrated archaeological sites: Pergamum’s Acropolis and Asklepion are both listed among the top 100 historical sites on the Mediterranean.
The Ancient Ruins of Pergamon
Built on a conical hill rising 1,000 feet above the surrounding valley, Pergamum (also spelled Pergamon, from the Greek for “citadel”) was an important capital city in ancient times. Its modern successor is the Turkish city of Bergama. A lack of modern accommodations means that Bergama is often a very quick stop, if visitors bother to come at all. But it is worth a long stop, for Bergama is home to two of the country’s most celebrated archaeological sites: Pergamum’s acropolis and Asklepion are both listed among the top 100 historical sites on the Mediterranean.
Once upon a time, Pergamon was noted for its parchment alternative source of papyrus from Egypt, the second biggest library with 200,000 volume of books in antiquity, a well-known spa center which used to be Mayo clinic hat had a good reputaion for medicine, trade center of the West as slave center of the ancinet world, the place of Satan lives with 33 pagan gods, military base of Roman army in Asia Minor, the source of copper and gold mines, the place of Dynosos feasts and many other faunctions has made Pergamon one of the wealthiest city of the ancient world.
Ion, Hellenistic, Roman,Byzantine, Seljuk, Ottoman periods, which have the most impressive monumental works of arts, cultures and beauties in Pergamum, can be still visible even today invites thousands of visitors who climb up to 1200 feet above the sea by cable in four-minute short journey first to see the ruins of Acropolis, then pay a visit to Asclepion to listen the healing mystic therapies in tunnels, later to read the scripture of the Bible in Red Square by its walls , finally to walk in Seljuk and Ottoman town to admire narrow streets with splendid old Turkish houses and hand woven colourful rug stores that eveyone feels the smell of the rich history past.
Pergamon is also very famous for the “ first invented or first used “ objects in the world. Here are some below ;
First Parchment – Paper made of Leather
First Library – 200,000 volumes of books
First Major Medical Health Center – Asclepium old verison of Mayo clinic
The First Natural Therapies – Music, theater, sports, sun and mud
First Pharmacology – Natural remedies
The First Model Of The Opium Drug – Heroine as painkiller
The First Urban Hygiene – Health infrastructure
The First Snake The Symbol of Medicine and Pharmacy
ACROPOLIS, UPPER CITY
Acropolis, due to the topographical requirements, constitutes a unique example of a city in terms of layout and planning form. It became necessary to save space by making the terraces so a masterpiece was cut and done. Today Greek and Roman ruins are visible. A unigue Roman theatre, Zeus altar, Trojan Temple and Arsenal are some monuments worth visiting.
ASKLEPION, THE SENATORIUM
One of the greatest cultural heritage of antiquity is Asklepion. Founded in the 4th century BC but the most brilliant period of the second century AD as ahealing center with great reputation among the nations all over the world. Some Roman emepors were treated and healed here. It was also used as a beauty farm by Roman ladies.
THE RED HALL
Known as Red Court or Red hall for its red brick and it was built as the temple of Egyptian Gods. A lot of speculations are told as the library of Pergamnon in Greek times and became church of Pergamon in Roman era.
The first museum in the region and was founded in 1924. It has two parts, the first section with the archeological findings from Pergamon , the second with etnographical findings which display of Turkish way of life and culture.
Bergama, The Leading City of Civilisation
Pergamon is one of the most important settlements in mankind so the history is really old. Pergamon has been the home of great civilizations and great kings with exceptionally beautiful nature in the west of the mystery East which grabbed so many attacks and seiges due to strategic position.
Pergamum; The Seat of Satan
In a two-part series , Gordon Robertson takes an in-depth look at the ancient Greco-Roman city Pergamum called “the dwelling place of Satan” from the book of Revelation. In part one, Gordon examines life in first-century Pergamum; the pagan cults devoted to the Roman emperor and the Greek gods Zeus and Asklepios; and the martyrdom of the Christian bishop Antipas. In part two, Pergamum’s Altar of Zeus takes center stage as it is excavated and taken to Germany where it later inspires the architecture of Adolf Hitler.
Pergamon and its Multi-Layered Cultural Landscape
This site rises high above the Bakircay Plain in Turkey’s Aegean region. The acropolis of Pergamon was the capital of the Hellenistic Attalid dynasty, a major centre of learning in the ancient world. Monumental temples, theatres, stoa or porticoes, gymnasium, altar and library were set into the sloping terrain surrounded by an extensive city wall. The rock-cut Kybele Sanctuary lies to the north-west on another hill visually linked to the acropolis. Later the city became capital of the Roman province of Asia known for its Asclepieion healing centre. The acropolis crowns a landscape containing burial mounds and remains of the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman empires in and around the modern town of Bergama on the lower slopes.